The European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) is a non-profit, medical scientific association. The EASD encourages and supports research in the field of Diabetes. It also seeks the rapid distribution of acquired knowledge to facilitate its application in real life. The 56th Annual EASD Meeting was held from 21st to 25th September.More than 20,000 delegates comprised of clinical researchers, doctors, scientists and medical students joined in this virtual meeting. .The LIBERATES studyBackgroundHeart disease is common in people with Diabetes. Nearly 65 per cent of people with Diabetes have the risk of death due to heart disease or stroke. Diabetes or high blood sugar levels also cause macrovascular complications like hardening of the coronary arteries, caused by a build-up of cholesterol in the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrition to the heart. Lack of oxygen delivery leads to a heart attack.Research studies have shown that higher HbAlc (a three-month average of blood sugar levels) is generally linked to a higher risk of heart disease.Key findingsThis study sought new ways to monitor blood sugar levels in people with Type 2 Diabetes who have had a heart attack. People in the study were either self-monitoring of blood glucose (glucose meter test) or using a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device.There was no difference in HbA 1c between the two groups, although CGM was seen to successfully reduce HbAlc in people with Type 2 Diabetes. Also, people in the CGM group had a lower risk of hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar levels) as opposed to a glucose meter test. CGM was also seen to lead to higher treatment satisfaction compared to a glucose meter test.Application in real lifePeople with Type 2 Diabetes could use newer technologies like CGM to monitor blood sugar levels. This continuous monitoring would ensure better sugar management as high and low blood sugar levels could be caught and treated in time. If blood sugar levels are better controlled, the risk of heart disease can be lowered.Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Follow-up StudyBackgroundWhen women with uncontrolled Diabetes are pregnant there is a higher risk of premature delivery, birth injury, intensive neonatal care, hyperbilirubinemia (excess bilirubin in the baby's blood) and preeclampsia (high blood pressure and damage to the liver and kidneys). The study intended to identify if the mother's high blood sugar levels caused the foetus to have high blood sugar levels as well.Key findingsThe HAPO study identified continuous associations between maternal sugar levels during pregnancy and new-born obesity. The follow-up study looked at maternal sugar levels during pregnancy at 28 weeks gestation and obesity at 10-14 years of age.The study found that the mother's body mass index (BMI) is related to childhood obesity. The mother's BMI also affects childhood blood sugar levels. The children of mothers who had gestational diabetes mellitus had a higher chance of being overweight and obese. The results indicated that higher maternal sugar levels were associated with increased birth weight and increased cord-blood serumC-peptide levels. Application in real lifeThis study highlighted the need for active controlling of high blood sugar levels using insulin during pregnancy. High blood sugar levels not only affect the health of the child but may adversely affect the mother's well-being as well.Multifactorial treatment of diabetes: 10-year follow-up of the ADDITION-EUROPE studyBackgroundManaging blood sugar levels is the major goal of Diabetes treatment. This helps prevent complications associated with Diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes is managed with insulin as well as dietary changes and exercise. Type 2 Diabetes may be managed withnon-insulin medications, insulin, weight loss or dietary changes. Most studies on prevention and treatment of Diabetes tend to focus on individual risk factors like obesity or high blood pressure or high cholesterol; although in the real world, people normally receive simultaneous treatment for several risk factors.Key findingsThe multicentre, international ADDITION-EUROPE study investigated the effect of promoting the intensive treatment of multiple risk factors among people with Type 2 Diabetes over 5 years. The multifactorial treatment included target driven, intensive approaches like lifestyle advice (smoking cessation, physical activity for 30 minutes a day and healthy diet) and medication to reduce the complications of Diabetes as described in the protocol.The findings showed that intensive treatment of people with Diabetes was possible even in a primary care setting. This led to an improvement in heart health due to standardised care and intensive intervention.Application in real lifeMultifactorial treatment can not only lower blood sugar levels but also lessen the risk of complications associated with Diabetes like heart disease. The study successfully showed that standard care andintensive management of HbAlc. blood pressure and total cholesterol levels lowered the risk of heart disease.