New Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes

Source: Nature Communications

Type 2 Diabetes is a condition of high blood sugar levels caused due to lack of sufficient secretion of insulin and the inability to use insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone released from the pancreas to process the carbohydrates present in the food and convert them into energy.

Type 2 Diabetes may occur due to several factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and genetic factors. The fat consumed in the diet and the one present in the body is stored beneath the skin. This fat is stored by different types of cells and it is used for different functions of the body such as storing energy and maintaining body temperature.

A recent research study published in the journal Nature Communications has tried to study the functioning of fat cells in the body and their use of energy to determine a way to treat Type 2 Diabetes. The cells that signal other body cells about the availability of energy are called white fat cells whereas the cells which regulate the body temperature using the fat are called brown fat cells. The third type of cells, beige fat cells switch and act as white or brown cells from time to time, also known as 'browning'. The research study has found that brown and beige cells help other cells to utilise excess energy and improve metabolism. This, in turn, helps reduce blood sugar levels. Further studies are being conducted to understand the long term implications of this mechanism.

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