Role of right and balanced nutrition in Diabetes
Dietary goals for the individual with Diabetes have evolved and have become more flexible and patient centred. Goals of diet in Diabetes aim to:
1. Promote and support healthful eating patterns, emphasizing a variety of nutrient dense foods in appropriate portion sizes in order to improve overall health and:
• Achieve and maintain ideal body weight.
• Attain individualized blood sugar, blood pressure, and lipid goals.
• Delay or prevent Diabetes related complications.
1. Address individual nutritional needs based on personal and cultural preferences, health literacy and numeracy, access to healthful food choices, willingness and ability to make behavioural changes, as well as barriers to change.
2. Maintain the pleasure of eating by providing guidance about food choices.
Nutritional deficiency and Diabetes management
People with poorly controlled Diabetes are susceptible to multiple micronutrient deficiencies.
Some of these micronutrients have potent antioxidant activity. It is not known whether the ingestion of antioxidant vitamins could delay or perhaps reverse the oxidative damage.
People with Diabetes should be made aware of the importance of acquiring daily vitamin and mineral requirements from natural food sources. In select groups such as the elderly, pregnant or lactating women, strict vegetarians, or those on calorie-restricted diets, supplementation with a multivitamin preparation is advisable. Few micronutrient deficiencies like chromium, magnesium etc have been implicated in the new onset of malnutrition in Diabetes.
At present, there is no evidence of benefit from vitamin or mineral supplementation in people with Diabetes who do not have underlying deficiencies. Exceptions include folate for the prevention of birth defects and calcium for prevention of bone disease. Prevention of bone disease. Both micro and macronutrient deficits results in uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus with poor quality of life.
Balancing carb, protein and fat intake
The main dietary components of the diet for an individual with Diabetes should be foods with a low glycaemic index and monounsaturated fat. The relative proportions of macronutrients may vary depending on the markers of Diabetes control for the individual.
A combination of carbohydrate and should provide 60 to70 per cent of the total daily energy intake. Total fat intake should be restricted to 35 per cent total energy.
Monounsaturated fatty acids should provide between 10 and 20 per cent total energy. Saturated and trans-fatty acids should provide below 10 per cent total energy. Polyunsaturated fatty acids should not exceed 10 per cent total energy.
Protein intake should range between 10 and 20 per cent total energy. Protein intake should not go below 0.6 g/kg normal body weight/day but should be at the lower end of the range (0.8 g/kg) body weight/day) in cases of nephropathy or where abnormal micro-albuminuria has been identified. Whole grains and protein foods take longer to digest than sugars and processed carbohydrates. With slower digestion comes a more gradual rise in blood sugar. This is more healthful for people with Diabetes. This is more healthful for people with Diabetes.
The relative proportions slower digestion comes a more gradual rise in blood sugar. This is more healthful for people with Diabetes. The relative proportions of macronutrients recommended in obese. Evidence has shown that adding protein to diet has actually helped to lose weight. We
Benefits of nutritional supplements
Everyone needs proteins. Proteins enable every cell to function. They help to maintain, rebuild and repair muscle. Protein is a building block for skin, nails, bones, and it makes up hormones,enzymes, and antibodies.Our bodies create some proteins, but others must come from the diet.They help to maintain, rebuild and repair muscle. Protein is a building block blood, Our bodies create some proteins, but others must come from the diet.
Protein food, such as whey, meat, Indians consume less than 15 per cent of energy from proteins. Studies conducted in 2003 showed that high protein intake lower blood sugar levels after meals and was supported by studies done on whey protein.
Dr Warun Kumar is a Consultant Dibetologist and Endocrinologist at Velammal Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Madurai.